Alfred Jarry

from Exploits and Opinions
of Doctor Faustroll, Pataphysician

8: Definition

An epiphenomenon is that which is superinduced upon a phenomenon.

Pataphysics, whose etymological spelling should be έπι (μετà τà φυσικά) and actual orthography ‘pataphysics, preceded by an apostrophe so as to avoid a simple pun, [1] is the science of that which is superinduced upon metaphysics, whether within or beyond the latter’s limitations, extending as far beyond metaphysics as the latter extends beyond physics. Ex: an epiphenomenon being often accidental, pataphysics will be, above all, the science of the particular, despite the common opinion that the only science is that of general. Pataphysics will examine the laws governing exceptions, and will explain the universe supplementary to this one; or, less ambitiously, will describe a universe which can be—and perhaps should be—envisaged in the place of the traditional one, since the laws that are supposed to have been discovered in the traditional universe are also correlations of exceptions, albeit more frequent ones, but in any case accidental data which, reduced to the status of unexceptional exceptions, possess no longer even the virtue of originality.

DEFINITION. Pataphysics is the science of imaginary solutions which symbolically attributes the properties of objects, described by their virtuality, to their lineaments.

Contemporary science is founded upon the principle of induction: most people have seen a certain phenomenon precede or follow some other phenomenon most often, and conclude therefrom that it will ever be thus. Apart from other considerations, this is true only in the majority of cases, depends upon the point of view, and is codified only for convenience—if that! Instead of formulating the law of the fall of a body toward a center, how far more apposite would be the law of the ascension of a vacuum toward a periphery, a vacuum being considered a unit of non‑density, a hypothesis far less arbitrary than the choice of a concrete unit of positive density such as water?

For even this body is a postulate and an average man’s point of view, and in order that its qualities, if not its nature, should remain fairly constant, it would be necessary to postulate that the height of human beings should remain more or less constant and mutually equivalent. Universal assent is already a quite miraculous and incomprehensible prejudice. Why should anyone claim that the shape of a watch is round—a manifestly false proposition—since it appears in profile as a narrow rectangular construction, elliptic on three sides; and why the devil should one only have noticed its shape at the moment of looking at the time? —Perhaps under the pretext of utility. But a child who draws a watch as a circle will also draw a house as a square, as a façade, without any justification, of course; because, except perhaps in the country, he will rarely see an isolated building, and even in a street the façades have the appearance of very oblique trapezoids.

We must, in fact, inevitably admit that the common herd (including small children and women) is too dimwitted to comprehend elliptic equations, and that its members are at one in a so‑called universal assent because they are capable of perceiving only those curves having a single focal point, since it is easier to coincide with one point rather than with two. These people communicate and achieve equilib­rium by the outer edge of their bellies, tangentially. But even the common herd has learned that the real universe is composed of ellipses, and tradesmen keep their wine in barrels rather than cylinders.

So that we may not abandon, through digression, our usual example of water, let us reflect, in this connection, upon the irreverence of the common herd whose instinct sums up the adepts of the science of pataphysics in the following phrase:

1 A simple pun in French, e.g., “patte à physique.”

SOURCE: Jarry, Alfred. Definition [of ’Pataphysics, from Exploits and Opinions of Doctor Faustroll, Pataphysician, chap. 8], in Evergreen Review Reader 1957-1967: A Ten-Year Anthology (New York: Grove Press, Inc., 1968), pp. 310-311. Illustrations from original publication omitted here.

On this site:

Laughter by Marcel Schwob

Magritte, la Pataphysique et son Collège

Alfred Jarry’s “How to Construct a Time Machine”: A Web Guide

Humor & Philosophy: Selected Bibliography

Irony, Humor, & Cynicism Study Guide

Philosophical and Universal Languages, 1600-1800, and Related Themes: Selected Bibliography

Jorge Luis Borges: Selected Study Materials on the Web


’Pataphysics @ Ĝirafo (blog)

The Crucifixion Considered As An Uphill Bicycle Race” by Alfred Jarry

Read by miette on November 28, 2007 (with sound file)

The Assassination of John Fitzgerald Kennedy Considered as a Downhill Motor Race” by J.G. Ballard

Read by miette on December 4, 2007 (with sound file)

Contributors - The Evergreen Review, Issue 102 (1999): James G. Ballard & Alfred Jarry

Words Made Flesh: Code, Culture, Imagination (2005)
by Florian Cramer

Functions of Science in French Fiction
by Arthur B. Evans

Pataphysics and Fictive Art

Pataphors (Paul Avion)

The London Institute of 'Pataphysics - Introduction

Adventures In ’Pataphysics by Alfred Jarry

The Journal of Pataphysical Reviews, volume 3
1. Issue 1
2. Issue 2
3. Issue 3


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Dead Links

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INTERVIEW: Marc Lowenthal of Wakefield Press, 7 July 2010

Pataphysical Discourse in the German Bildungsroman by Christian Anderson (Northeastern Modern Language Association Conference, 2008)

Symbolism and Beyond. An Introduction to Jarry’s Life, Work and Poetics

The Pataphysical Calendar of Alfred Jarry

Definitely Maybe ('Pataphysics Resources)

Novum Organum du Collège de ’Pataphysique

Pataphysique de Nautia

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