Philosophy of Early German Romanticism,
the Oriental Renaissance, and the Historiography of Philosophy:
An Introductory Bibliography

Compiled by Ralph Dumain

Frühromantik / Jena Romanticism / German Romanticism

Selected Works in English translation


German Romantic Criticism: Novalis, Schlegel, Schleiermacher and Others, edited by A. Leslie Willson; foreword by Ernst Behler. New York: Continuum, 1982. (The German Library; v. 21)

From “On the Different Methods of Translation” / Friedrich Schleiermacher
From “School for Aesthetics” / Jean Paul Friedrich Richter
Aphorisms and Fragments / Novalis
From “Dialogue on Poetry and Lectures on Dramatic Art and Literature”  / Friedrich Schlegel
“On the Imagination” / Wilhelm von Humboldt
“The German Chapbooks” / Joseph Görres From “Lectures on Dramatic Art and Literature” / August Wilhelm Schlegel
“On the Process of the Poetic Mind” / Friedrich Hölderlin
“On the Marionette Theater / Heinrich von Kleist
From “Twelve Lectures on Rhetoric” / Adam Müller
 “On the Origin of Language” / Jacob Grimm.

Theory as Practice: A Critical Anthology of Early German Romantic Writings; Jochen Schulte-Sasse, general editor; coedited, translated, and introduced by Haynes Horne, Andreas Michel, Elizabeth Mittman, Assenka Oksiloff. Lisa C. Roetzel. Mary R. Strand. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997.

Preface ix
List of Abbreviations xi
General Introduction: Romanticism’s Paradoxical Articulation of Desire / Joche,n Schulte-Sasse  1
I. Critique in the Wake of German Idealism 45
Introductory Essay: Representing Self and Other in Early German Romanticism / Elizabeth Mittman and Mary R. Strand  47
Notes to Introductory Essay 68
1. Earliest Program for a System of German Idealism (1796)  72
2. Selections from Fichte-Schelling Correspondence (1800-1801)  73
3. Novalis: Fichte Studies (1795-96) 90
4. Friedrich Schlegel: Fichte’s Basic Characteristics of the Present Age (1808)  112
5. Friedrich Schlegel: On Incomprehensibility (1800) 118
6. Novalis: Faith and Love and Political Aphorisms (1798) 128
7. Novalis: Soliloquy (1798) 145
Notes 146
II. Theory of Aesthetics 155
Introductory Essay: Romantic Crossovers: Philosophy as Art and Art as Philosophy / Andreas Michel and Assenka Oksiloff   157
Notes to Introductory Essay 178
1. Friedrich Schlegel: Dialogue on Poesy (1799) 180
2. A. W. Schlegel: Theory of Art (Selection) (1798-1803) 194
3. Novalis: The Universal Brouillon (1798-99) 226
4. Friedrich Schlegel: Introduction to the Transcendental Philosophy (1800)  240
5. Friedrich Schlegel: Concerning the Essence of Critique (1804)  268
Notes 277
III. The Fragmentary Imperative 287 Introductory Essay: The Early Romantic Fragment and Incompleteness / Haynes Home  289
Notes to Introductory Essay 311
1. Friedrich Schlegel: Critical Fragments (1797-1801) 314
2. Friedrich Schlegel: Athenaum Fragments (1798) 319
3. Friedrich Schlegel: Ideas (1800) 326
4. Friedrich Schlegel: Fragments on Literature and Poesy (1797)  329
5. Friedrich Schlegel: Philosophical Fragments (1796) 335
6. Friedrich Schlegel: Philological Fragments 344
Notes 354
IV. Toward a Theory of the Feminine 359
Introductory Essay: Feminizing Philosophy / Lisa C. Roetzel  361
Notes to Introductory Essay 380
1. Novalis: On Women and Femininity 382
2. Johann Wilhelm Ritter: Natural Philosophy of Femininity 390
3. Friedrich Schlegel: Theory of Femininity 397
4. Friedrich Schlegel: On Diotima (1795) 400
5. Friedrich Schlegel: On Philosophy. To Dorothea 419
6. Dorothea Veit-Schlegel: Selected Diaries and Letters 440
7. Caroline Schlegel-Schelling: Selected Letters/Reviews/Parody  443
Bibliography 463
Selected Studies on Early German Romanticism in English 463
German Romanticism in English Translation 467
Sources for Translations 469
Index 471

Novalis [Georg Friedrich Philipp von Hardenberg]

Novalis. The Birth of Novalis: Friedrich von Hardenberg’s Journal of 1797, with Selected Letters and Documents, translated and edited by Bruce Donehower. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 2007.

———. Fichte Studies, edited and translated by Jane Kneller.Jane Kneller. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

———. Henry von Ofterdingen, translated by Palmer Hilty. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Company, 1964.

———. Hymns to the Night, translated by Dick Higgins. 3rd ed. Kingston, NY: McPherson & Company, 1988.

———. Hymns to the Night / Spiritual Songs, translated by George MacDonald, foreword by Sergei O. Prokofieff. London: Temple Lodge Publishing, 2001.

———. Notes for a Romantic Encyclopaedia: Das Allgemeine Brouillon, translated, edited, and with an introduction by David W. Wood. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2007.

———. The Novices of Sais, translated by Ralph Manheim, illustrated by Paul Klee. Brooklyn: Archipelago Books, 2005. [Orig. 1949.]

———. Philosophical Writings, translated and edited by Margaret Mahony Stoljar. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1997.

Miscellaneous Observations
Logological Fragments I
Logological Fragments II
Teplitz Fragments

———. Spiritual Saturnalia: Fragments of Existence, translation and introduction by John N. Ritter. New York: Exposition Press, 1971.

Friedrich Schlegel

Schlegel, Friedrich von. The Aesthetic and Miscellaneous Works of Frederick von Schlegel, translated by Ellen J. Millington. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1849. [1860]

Letters on Christian Art
An Essay on Gothic Architecture
Remarks on the Romance-Poetry of the Middle Ages and on Shakspere
On the Limits of the Beautiful
On the Language and Wisdom of the Indians

———. A Course of Lectures on Modern History, translated by Lyndsey Purcell and R. H. Whitelock. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1849.

———. Dialogue on Poetry and Literary Aphorisms, translated, introduced, and annotated by Ernst Behler. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1966.

———. Lectures on the History of Literature, Ancient and Modern, translated by J. G. Lockhart. Edinburgh:William Blackwood; London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1818.

———. Literary Notebooks, 1797-1801, edited with introduction and commentary by Hans Eichner. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1957.

———. Lucinde and the Fragments, translated with an introduction by Peter Firchow. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1971.

———. On the Study of Greek Poetry, translated, edited, and with a critical introduction by Stuart Barnett, Albany: State University of New York Press, 2001.

———. The Philosophy of History: In a Course of Lectures, Delivered at Vienna, translated by James Burton Robertson. 6th ed. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1848.

———. The Philosophy of Life and Philosophy of Language in a Course of Lectures, translated by A. J. W. Morrison. London: H. G. Bohn. 1847. [1876]

Friedrich Schlegel in German

Schlegel, Friedrich von. Kritische Ausgabe, 35 volumes, ed. Ernst Behler (in collaboration with Jean-Jacques Anstett, Jakob Baxa, Ursula Behler, Liselotte Dieckmann, Hans Eichner, Raymond Immerwahr, Robert L. Kahn, Eugene Susini, Bertold Sutter, A. Leslie Wilson, and others). Paderborn: Schöningh, 1958ff.

Note: Die Entwicklung der Philosophie in zwölf Büchern [The Development of Philosophy in twelve volumes], 1804-5, in vols. 12-13. Important work not translated. For discussion of this in English see Park (2013), Millán-Zaibert (2007).

On German Romanticism

Behler, Ernst. German Romantic Literary Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Beiser, Frederick C. The Romantic Imperative: The Concept of Early German Romanticism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003.

Breckman, Warren. “Marx and Romanticism,” Critical Review, 2022, pp. 1-25.

Chaouli, Michel. The Laboratory of Poetry: Chemistry and Poetics in the Work of Friedrich Schlegel, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

Forster, Michael N. German Philosophy of Language from Schlegel to Hegel and Beyond. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Frank, Manfred. The Philosophical Foundations of Early German Romanticism, translated by Elizabeth Millán-Zaibert. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2004.

Millán-Zaibert, Elizabeth. Friedrich Schlegel and the Emergence of Romantic Philosophy. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2007.

Nassar, Dalia, ed. The Relevance of Romanticism: Essays on German Romantic Philosophy. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

———. The Romantic Absolute: Being and Knowing in Early German Romantic Philosophy, 1795-1804. Chicago; London: University of Chicago Press, 2014.

German Orientalism / Oriental Renaissance / Historiography of Philosophy

Bernasconi, Robert. “With What Must the History of Philosophy Begin? Hegel’s Role in the Debate on the Place of India within the History of Philosophy,” in Hegel’s History of Philosophy: New Interpretations, edited by David A. Duquette (Albany: SUNY Press, 2003), pp. 35-49.

Clarke, J. J. Oriental Enlightenment: The Encounter between Asian and Western Thought. London; New York: Routledge, 1997.

Eigen, Sara; Larrimore, Mark; eds. The German Invention of Race, Albany: SUNY Press, 2006.

Germana, Nicholas A. The Orient of Europe: The Mythical Image of India and Competing Images of German National Identity. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars, 2009.

Halbfass, Wilhelm. India and Europe: an Essay in Understanding. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1988.

Herling, Bradley L. The German Gītā: Hermeneutics and Discipline in the German Reception of Indian Thought, 1778-1831. New York; London: Routledge, 2006.

Kontje, Todd. German Orientalisms. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2004.

See section 2: Romantic Orientalism and the Absence of Empire, pp. 61-132.

Jenkins, Jennifer. Review of Kontje, Todd, German Orientalisms, H-German, H-Net Reviews, September, 2005.

Macfie, Alexander Lyon, ed. Eastern Influences on Western Philosophy: A Reader. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2003.

6. Herder and German Romanticism / Ronald Taylor 130
7. Hegel / Wilhelm Halbfass 141
8. Schelling and Schopenhauer / Wilhelm Halbfass, pp. 161-186.

Marchand, Suzanne L. German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race, and Scholarship. Washington, DC: German Historical Institute; Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

McGetchin, Douglas T.; Park, Peter K. J.; SarDesai, D. R.; eds. Sanskrit and ‘Orientalism’: Indology and Comparative Linguistics in Germany, 1750-1958. New Delhi: Manohar, 2004.

Park, Peter K. J. “A Catholic Apologist in a Pantheistic World: New Approaches to Friedrich Schlegel,” pp. 83-106.
Tzoref-Ashkenazi, Chen. “The Nationalist Aspect of Friedrich Schlegel’s ‘On the Language and the Wisdom of the Indians’,” pp. 107-130.
Marchignoli, Saverio. “Canonizing an Indian Text? A.W. Schlegel, W. von Humboldt, Hegel, and the Bhagavadgita,” pp. 245-270.

Park, Peter K. J. Africa, Asia, and the History of Philosophy: Racism in the Formation of the Philosophical Canon, 1780-1830. Albany: SUNY Press, 2013.

List of Figures vii
Acknowledgments ix
Preface xi
List of Abbreviations xv
Introduction 1
1 The Kantian School and the Consolidation of Modern Historiography of Philosophy 11
2 The Birth of Comparative History of Philosophy: Joseph-Marie de Gérando’s Histoire comparée des systèmes de philosophie 31
3 India in Friedrich Schlegel’s Comparative History of Philosophy 51
4 The Exclusion of Africa and Asia from the History of Philosophy: The Formation of the Kantian Position 69
5 Systematic Inclusion of Africa and Asia under Absolute Idealism: Friedrich Ast’s and Thaddä Anselm Rixner’s Histories of Philosophy 97
6 Absolute Idealism Reverts to the Kantian Position: Hegel’s Exclusion of Africa and Asia 113
7 The Comparative History of Philosophy in August Tholuck’s Polemic against Hegel 133
Conclusion 149
Notes 153
Bibliography 199
Index 221

Schwab, Raymond. Oriental Renaissance: Europe’s Rediscovery of India and the East, 1680-1880, translated by Gene Patterson-Black and Victor Reinking; foreword by Edward W. Said. New York: Columbia University Press, 1984.

Viyagappa, Ignatius. G. W. F. Hegel’s Concept of Indian Philosophy. Rome: Pontificia Universitas Gregoriana, 1980.

Willson, A. Leslie. A Mythical Image: The Ideal of India in German Romanticism. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1964.


Harten, Stuart Jay. Raising the Veil of History: Orientalism, Classicism and the Birth of Western Civilization in Hegel’s Berlin Lecture Courses of the 1820’s. Dissertation, Cornell University, 1994.

Online encyclopedia articles

Friedrich Schlegel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Novalis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
German Romanticism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jena Romanticism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Athenaeum (German magazine) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Friedrich Schlegel by Allen Speight, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Georg Friedrich Philipp von Hardenberg [Novalis] by Kristin Gjesdal, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Note: The emphasis here is on the once-neglected philosophical basis of Early German Romanticism (Frühromantik) and its interaction with German Idealism, rather than on its much-studied literary and aesthetic side, though some of that is also included here, especially the primary sources. The main emphasis is on Friedrich Schlegel, and secondarily on Novalis. The literature spills over beyond the early period of German Romanticism. The time span of the Frühromantik is variously dated: Beiser specifies 1797-1802, Frank says Jena and Berlin, 1794-1808, Wikipedia dates Jena Romanticism to 1798-1804. Also of note is the Romantic response to the philosophies and religions of non-Western civilizations and thus the philosophy of philosophy and the history of philosophy.

Friedrich Schlegel on Philosophy in Music

Fichte on Philosophy as the Mind's Self-Mastery

Heinrich Heine on German Romantic Orientalism

M. Szenczi on Imagination & Nature according to Coleridge, Wordsworth, Blake, Bacon, & Kant

European Romanticism, edited by István Sőtér and I[rina Grigor’evna] Neupokoyeva

Immanuel Kant in England, 1793-1838: Henry James Richter
by René Wellek

The architectonic of pure reason (excerpt)
by Immanuel Kant

Hegel on Ars Combinatoria & Characteristica Universalis

Hegel on Number Mysticism: Pythagoreanism, Astrology, I Ching

Hegel on Daoism (Taoism)

Hegel's Aesthetics: Selected Bibliography

Heinrich Heine: Selected Bibliography

The Young Hegelians: Selected Bibliography

Marx, Literature, and the Arts: Select Bibliography

English & German Romanticism & Philosophy: A Bibliography

Irony in Philosophy, Romanticism, & Criticism: Selected Bibliography

Irony, Humor, & Cynicism Study Guide

Occultism, Eastern Mysticism, Fascism, & Countercultures: Selected Bibliography

Positivism vs Life Philosophy (Lebensphilosophie) Study Guide

Philosophy of History of Philosophy & Historiography of Philosophy: Selected Bibliography

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