Paul Szende on ideology & reification

“All ideologies tend to become reified. Handed down from generation to generation, they end up having a constraining authoritarian form, from which thought can no more free itself. Abstract ideas, principles and concepts are transformed into essences and or forces that are real though invisible and that are obeyed by humans as though they were superior beings.... It is understandable that Medieval Church denounced nominalism .... Its hostility to critical positivism is based on the very same motivation.”

— Paul Szende, Verhüllung und Enthüllung. Der Kampf der Ideologien in der Geschichte (Leipzig: Hirschfeld, 1922), p. 19ff; quoted in Joseph Gabel, Mannheim and Hungarian Marxism, translated by William M. Stein and James McCrate (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1991), p. 19.

Alienation, Utopia, & Hungarian intellectuals: Madách, Ady, Karinthy, Fogarasi, Nádor, Lukács, Mannheim

Review of Béla Fogarasi, Logik by Alonzo Church

On Merab Mamardashvili (from "Where Does Meaning Come From?")
by Mara Stafecka

Pri Falsa Konscio kaj Mistifiko
de Ladislav Podmele (in Esperanto)

Reification by Gajo Petrović

Depreciation: Adorno on Theory, Reification, Paranoia, Dialectics
by Theodor W. Adorno

Georg Lukács on Relativism, Feuerbach, Nietzsche & Spengler

Georg Lukács’ The Destruction of Reason: Selected Bibliography

Futurology, Science Fiction, Utopia, and Alienation
in the Work of Imre Madách, György Lukács, and Other Hungarian Writers:
Select Bibliography

Ideology Study Guide

Salvaging Soviet Philosophy (1)

Marx and Marxism Web Guide


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