The Afro-German Connection:
Web Guide & Bibliography

Compiled by Ralph Dumain

Contemporary Black German Life

ADEFRA: Black German Women

African-German Filmmakers Hope to Open Up 'New Perspectives'
by David Gordon Smith

Black German History & Scholarship

Black History and Germany - Afro Germans - Afrodeutsche

Black History Month in Germany
by Joerg Wolf, February 23, 2007

Remapping Black Germany. New Perspectives on Afro-German History, Politics, and Culture
See also:

German-language texts by Africans and Black Germans: A Research Agenda
by Nina Berman

Contemporary Black German History
Discussion with Peggy Piesche (Scholar of Literature, Utrecht/Berlin), Yara Colette Muniz de Faria (Historian, Berlin), Tina Campt (Historian, Durham).
Host: Fatima El-Tayeb (Historian, San Diego)

The Nazi Holocaust

Black German Holocaust Victims
See also:

Black Victims (Holocaust History)

Black History Month (U.S. Memorial Holocaust Museum)

Blacks During the Holocaust (U.S. Memorial Holocaust Museum)

Review: Hitler's African Victims: The German Army Massacres of Black French Soldiers in 1940
by Col. Robert F. Tate

"The Role of Race in the Third Reich: A Look at Negrophobia in Nazi Propaganda"
by Deborah Anna Brown

Book Review: Race after Hitler: Black Occupation Children in Postwar Germany and America. By Heide Fehrenbach. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005.
The Journal of American History, vol. 3, no. 92, Sept. 2006. Abstract.

Bulletin of the German Historical Institute

Crossovers: African Americans and Germany (Anke Ortlepp, Maria Diedrich, Larry Greene, Jürgen Heinrichs), Issue 39, Fall 2006.

'In Pursuit of "Freedom": African-, Anglo-, and German-American Alliances in the Abolition Movement'
by Mischa Honeck, Issue 38, Spring 2006, pp. 99-117.

Forum: The Measure of Atrocity: The German War Against the Hereros, Issue 37, Fall 2005:

"The Military Campaign in German Southwest Africa, 1904–1907"
by Isabel Hull, pp. 39-44.

"Coming to Terms with the Past"
by Gesine Krüger, pp. 45-49.

'Annihilation in Africa: The "Race War" in German Southwest Africa (1904–1908) and its Significance for a Global History of Genocide'
by Jürgen Zimmerer, pp. 51-47.

Further Reading,
p. 58.

"Africans in Early Modern German Society: Identity - Difference - Aesthetics - Anthropology"
by Vera Lin, Issue 28, Spring 2001.

"Germany and African Americans: A Comparative Perspective"
(Conference held at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, November 2, 1998)
Issue 23, Fall 1998.

The Culture of Rights: Civil Rights, Participation Rights, and Social Rights in Germany and the United States from the Late 19th Century to the Present.
(Conference at the German Historical Institute, Washington, D.C., June 11-14, 1997.)
Issue 21, Fall 1997.

"German Immigrants and African Americans in Mid-Nineteenth Century America: A Study in Group Interaction"
by Hartmut Keil, Issue No, 12, Spring 1993, pp. 16-19.

German-Speaking Refugee Scholars of the Thirties at Historically Black Colleges
by Gabrielle Simon Edgcomb, Issue No. 6, Spring 1990, pp. 11-14.

See also: Edgcomb, Gabrielle Simon. From Swastika to Jim Crow: Refugee Scholars at Black Colleges. Foreword by John Hope Franklin. Malabar, FL: Krieger Publishing Company, 1993. Also a PBS documentary.

Research Reports, Issue No. 4, Spring 1989.

A. Gabrielle Simon Edgcomb:
German-Speaking Refugee Scholars of the Thirties in Historically Black Colleges, pp. 20-27.

B. Catherine Epstein:
German-Speaking Refugee Historians in the United States after 1933, pp. 27-36.

Black Americans, German-Americans, and Germany

African Americans and Germany, programs at the German Historical Institute

Collegium for African American Reseach (CAAR)

Crossovers: African Americans and Germany (2006 conference)

Höhn, Maria. "The Black Panther Solidarity Committees and the Voice of the Lumpen," German Studies Review, XXXI, 1, February 2008, pp. 133-154.

Additional references: books

The African-German Experience: Critical Essays, edited by Carol Aisha Blackshire-Belay. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996.

Walther, Daniel J. Review of Blackshire-Belay, Carol Aisah, ed., The African-German Experience: Critical Essays. H-Africa, H-Net Reviews. August, 1997.

Assing, Ottilie. Radical Passion: Ottilie Assing's Reports from America and Letters to Frederick Douglass, edited, translated, and introduced by Christoph Lohmann. New York: Peter Lang, 1999. (New Directions in German American Studies; v. 1)

Ayim, May. Blues in Black and White: A Collection of Essays, Poetry and Conversations, translated and with an introduction by Anne V. Adams. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2003.

Bailey, John. The Lost German Slave Girl: The Extraordinary True Story of Sally Miller and Her Fight for Freedom in Old New Orleans. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2005.

Patrick Luck. Review of Bailey, John, The Lost German Slave Girl. H-German, H-Net Reviews, March, 2006.

The Black Book: Deutschlands Häutungen / herausgegeben von AntiDiskriminierungsBüro (ADB) Köln von Öffentlichkeit gegen Gewalt e.V. und CyberNomads (cbN). Frankfurt am Main: IKO—Verlag für Interkulturelle Kommunikation, 2004.

Blackening Europe: The African American Presence, edited by Heike Raphael-Hernandez,with a foreword by Paul Gilroy. New York: Routledge, 2004. (Crosscurrents in African American History) Table of contents. Publisher description.

Blacks and German Culture: Essays, edited by Reinhold Grimm and Jost Hermand. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1986.

Campt, Tina. Other Germans : Black Germans and and the Politics of Race, Gender, and Memory in the Third Reich. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 2004. (Social History, Popular Culture, and Politics in Germany). Publisher description. Table of contents.

See also: Rosenhaft, Eve. Review of Bechhaus-Gerst, Marianne; Klein-Arendt, Reinhard, eds., Die (koloniale) Begegnung: AfrikanerInnen in Deutschland 1880-1945, Deutsche in Afrika 1880-1918 and Campt, Tina M., Other Germans: Black Germans and the Politics of Race, Gender and Memory in the Third Reich. H-German, H-Net Reviews. July, 2005.

Carr, Firpo W. Germany's Black Holocaust, 1890-1945. Kearney, NE : Morris Publishing, 2003.

Crosscurrents: African Americans, Africa, and Germany in the Modern World, edited by David McBride, Leroy Hopkins, and C. Aisha Blackshire-Belay. Columbia, SC: Camden House, 1998.

Diedrich, Maria. Love Across Color Lines: Ottilie Assing and Frederick Douglass. New York: Hill and Wang, 1999.

Edgcomb, Gabrielle Simon. From Swastika to Jim Crow: Refugee Scholars at Black Colleges. Foreword by John Hope Franklin. Malabar, FL: Krieger Publishing Company, 1993. Also a PBS documentary.

Fehrenbach, Heide. Race After Hitler: Black Occupation Children in Postwar Germany and America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005. Publisher description. Table of contents.

See also: Robbie Aitken. Review of Fehrenbach, Heide, Race after Hitler: Black Occupation Children in Postwar Germany and America. H-German, H-Net Reviews. February, 2006.

Heinig, Herbert Louis. The "Black Jew", Germans, Nazis and Nature's Other Creatures. Bloomington, IN: Author House, 2004.

Horton, James Oliver. Free People of Color: Inside the African American Community. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993. Section on black relations with German immigrants.

Lusane, Clarence. Hitler's Black Victims: The Historical Experiences of Afro-Germans, European Blacks, Africans, and African Americans in the Nazi Era. New York: Routledge, 2003. (Crosscurrents in African American History) Publisher description.

Markham, Sara H. Workers, Women, and Afro-Americans: Images of the United States in German Travel Literature from 1923 to 1933. New York: Peter Lang, 1986. (American University Studies. Series I, Germanic Languages and Literature; vol. 45)

Massaquoi, Hans J. Destined to Witness: Growing Up Black in Nazi Germany. New York: William Morrow, 1999.

Not So Plain as Black and White: Afro-German Culture And History, 1890-2000, edited by Patricia Mazon and Reinhild Steingröver with a foreword by Russell Berman. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2005. Table of contents. Publisher's page.

Öfele, Martin W. German-Speaking Officers in the United States Colored Troops, 1863-1867. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004. (New Perspectives on the History of the South) Table of contents.

Aranha, Stephen. Review of Oefele, Martin W., German-Speaking Officers in the U.S. Colored Troops, 1863-1867. H-German, H-Net Reviews. June, 2006.

Schroer, Timothy. Review of Oefele, Martin W., German-Speaking Officers in the U.S. Colored Troops, 1863-1867. H-GAGCS, H-Net Reviews. December, 2004. or

Urwin, Gregory J. W. Review of Oefele, Martin W., German-Speaking Officers in the U.S. Colored Troops, 1863-1867. H-CivWar, H-Net Reviews. December, 2006.

Owens, Emiel W. Blood on German Snow: An African American Artilleryman in World War II and Beyond. College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 2006. (Texas A & M University Military History Series; 105) Table of contents.

Reed-Anderson, Paulette. Rewriting the Footnotes: Berlin and the African Diaspora = Berlin und die afrikanische Diaspora. Berlin: Ausländerbeauftragte des Senats, 2000. (Miteinander leben in Berlin) Parallel texts in English & German.

Sankoh, Osman Alimamy. Hybrid Eyes: An African in Europe, abridged for the classroom by Mohamed C. Kamanda. Aachen: Africa Future, 2001. (Sierra Leonean Writers Series; CR-1) Table of contents.

Sarkin(-Hughes), Jeremy. Colonial Genocide and Reparations Claims in the 21st Century: The Socio-Legal Context of Claims Under International Law by the Herero Against Germany for Genocide in Namibia, 1904-1908. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2008.

Schaap, Jeremy. Triumph: The Untold Story of Jesse Owens and Hitler's Olympics. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2007. Table of contents. Publisher description. Sample text.

Schroer, Timothy L. Recasting Race After World War II: Germans and African Americans in American-Occupied Germany. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2007. Table of contents.

Showing Our Colors: Afro-German Women Speak Out, edited by May Opitz, Katharina Oguntoye & Dagmar Schultz, with a foreword by Audre Lorde; translated by Anne V. Adams, in cooperation with Tina Campt, May Opitz & Dagmar Schultz. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1992.

States of Progress: Germans and Blacks in America over 300 Years: Lectures from the Tricentennial of the Germantown Protest Against Slavery, edited by Randall M. Miller. Philadelphia: German Society of Pennsylvania, 1989.

Wedlock, Lunabelle. The Reaction of Negro Publications and Organizations to German Anti-Semitism. Washington, DC: The Graduate School, Howard University, 1942. (The Howard University Studies in the Social Sciences, vol. III, no. 2)

White, Vernessa C. Afro-American and East German Fiction: A Comparative Study of Alienation, Identity, and the Development of Self. New York: Peter Lang, 1983. (American University Studies. Series III, Comparative Literature; v. 4)

Additional references: articles in journals & books & online

Appiah, Kwame Anthony. “On the Kidnapped African Boy Who Became a German Philosopher” [Amo Afer], Literary Hub, August 29, 2018.

Fehrebach, Heidi. "Afro-German Children and the Social Politics of Race After 1945", in: German History from the Margins, edited by Neil Gregor, Nils H. Roemer, Mark Roseman (Indiana University Press, 2006), pp. 226-251.

Fikes, Robert, Jr. "Ja, auch wir lehren Deutsch: African American Professors of German in Historical Perspective." Original ms of article published under a different title in Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2001.

Klimke, Martin. "The African-American Civil Rights Struggle and Germany, 1945-1989," Bulletin of the German Historical Institute, issue no. 43, Fall 2008, pp. 91-106.

Zimmerman, Andrew. "Booker T. Washington, The Tuskegee Institute, and the German Empire: Race and Cotton in the Black Atlantic," Bulletin of the German Historical Institute, issue no. 43, Fall 2008, pp. 9-20.

Web pages on this site

Note: This guide-in-progress to literature in English on the Afro-German connection pertains to historical, cultural, intellectual, political, and economic relations connecting Germany, Germans, and German-Americans, to Africa, Africans, Black Americans, Afro-Germans and the African diaspora generally. The pertinent field of intellectual history, i.e. the relations between black intellectuals and thought to German thought and thinkers will be subject of one or more additional bibliographies. (W. E. B. Du Bois is the most celebrated example.)

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Uploaded 27 November 2008
Last update 1 December 2019
Previous update 15 September 2008

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